Ammonia poisoning accidents and emergency rescue measures (1)

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Ammonia is a colorless, irritating, irritating gas. Ammonia is synthesized from hydrogen and nitrogen under pressure and under the action of a catalyst. It is a raw material for the production of nitrogenous fertilizers and nitric acid. It is easily liquefied into colorless liquids and is a good refrigerant in the industrial sector. In the process of production and use of ammonia, equipment failures, such as valve bursts, pipeline ruptures, liquid ammonia tank bursts, etc., cause large amounts of ammonia to escape, and can cause many people to experience acute ammonia poisoning.



A Chemical Industries fertilizer plant production underway night at 23:00 on April 29 1977. Suddenly, the on-duty workers in the compounding workshop discovered a sudden drop in the pressure of the liquid ammonia system. He immediately reported the situation to the factory production control room and searched for the cause of the accident according to the production process. After 10 minutes, the reason was finally found. A φ 89mm to the liquid ammonia warehouse outside the plant's synthesis plant The liquid ammonia pipeline fractured due to corrosion, resulting in leakage of liquid ammonia in the pipeline. The general dispatching room of the plant decided to close the valves at both ends of the pipeline and cut off the leakage of toxic sources. At this time, 3 tons of liquid ammonia had leaked and the area of ​​ammonia gas reached 2.4 square kilometers. At that time, the workers produced in the workshop and the workers passing by were surrounded by ammonia gas, and 43 people had acute ammonia poisoning. However, due to the fact that the plant is far away from residents and it is a wilderness outside the factory, it did not cause ammonia poisoning accidents among residents.

2. After the rescue

1 Immediately set up a rescue headquarters, centered on the plant's general dispatch room, and the main leaders of the plant came to the command center within a few minutes. At the same time, the person in charge of informing the safety, sanitation, environmental protection, machine repair, and security departments of the plant immediately rushed to the headquarters to form a leadership team of the headquarters, unifiedly commanded the rescue and repair work of the accident, and made a unified rescue plan.

â‘¡ Search poisoning poisoning personnel away from the scene, taken to hospital workers were robbed save. After the accident, the general dispatching room immediately called the plant's gas protection station and immediately dispatched ambulances, ambulance crews, and factory health personnel on duty to rush to the scene of the accident to search for poisoned personnel. Organize workshops to count the number of people to prevent missing poisoned patients. The poisoned patient was rescued from the scene of poisoning to fresh air. The patients with severe poisonings were immediately rescued on site and rescued while sending patients to the hospital for rescue.

3 The headquarters informed the company that it was a staff hospital, preparing beds, receiving patients, preparing for salvage patients, and organizing the medicine sources needed for rescue work.

4 After receiving the notice from the rescue headquarters, the staff hospital immediately organized the medical staff to rush to the hospital. Occupational disease physicians are mainly employed to absorb the rescue team composed of internal medicine, otolaryngology, surgery, radiology and nursing staff. The poisoned patients were immediately sent to the staff hospital for a thorough examination. According to the patient's clinical performance, they decided to receive hospital treatment. Thorough X- ray chest fluoroscopy was performed on 43 patients with poisoning . X- ray chest radiographs were performed on 8 patients with significant changes in the lungs . The chest radiograph was found to have thickened lung texture, and there were spot-like shadow changes in the middle and lower lung fields, which were diagnosed as early pulmonary edema. According to toxic pulmonary edema rescue: early use of adequate glucocorticoids and dehydration therapy, oxygen, sedation, antitussive, etc., after 7 to 10 days of treatment are all cured. For other patients with poisoning and pharyngeal edema, aerosol sprays were used locally; intravenous calcium was administered intravenously, and intravenous injection of vitamin C was added to hyperglycemia glucose injection . Use glucocorticoids to prevent the occurrence of pulmonary edema. After the above treatment, all poisoned patients were gradually discharged from the hospital within one month. No case had sequelae.

5 repairs. The headquarters informed the relevant departments of the formation of a repair team. Repair and replace leaking pipelines and strive to resume production as soon as possible. After 10 hours of intensive repairs, normal production resumed after half an accident.

3. Discussion

In this accident, 3 tons of ammonia was run , and 43 people experienced acute ammonia poisoning. There was no death and sequelae after the rescue. That is a long time to resume production after the accident described the accident rescue work is successful. The reasons for success are as follows.

1 Immediately established an accident rescue headquarters. The command of the headquarters is correct and the command is powerful.

2 The quality of the business of the workers was high. Liquid ammonia leaks were discovered in time, and the treatment was decisive. It did not cause a greater amount of liquid ammonia to continue to leak, and prevented the accident from expanding.

3 The factory has a well-trained gas protection station. Within minutes of the accident, ambulances can reach the scene, rescue the poisoned patients from the scene of poisoning and rescue before the hospital.

4 The hospital is constantly preparing for rescue work of acute poisoning. After being notified of the accident, even in the middle of the night, the medical staff could be immediately summoned to the hospital. Rescue work focused on the establishment of a correct rescue program, targeting the characteristics of poisons to prevent the occurrence of toxic pulmonary edema, the effect is obvious.

The information in this article comes from the Internet and was reorganized and edited by China Rescue Equipment Network.

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